Indiana Reading and Writing Standards
There are three key areas found in the Reading: Literature section for grades 6-12: Key Ideas and Textual Support, Structural Elements and Organization, and Synthesis and Connection of Ideas. By demonstrating the skills listed in each section, students should be able to meet the Learning Outcome for Reading: Literature.
Read a variety of literature within a range of complexity appropriate for grades 6-8. By the end of grade 7, students interact with texts proficiently and independently at the middle of the range and with scaffolding as needed for texts at the high end of the range.
Key Ideas and Textual Support
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what a text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Analyze the development of a theme or central idea over the course of a work of literature; provide a detailed summary that supports the analysis.
Analyze the interaction of elements in a work of literature (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).
7.RL.2.4 Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.
Structural Elements and Organization
Analyze how a work of literature's structural elements such as subplots, parallel episodes, climax, and conflicts contribute to its meaning and plot.
Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a work of literature.
Synthesis and Connection of Ideas
Compare and contrast a written story, play or poem with its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).
Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.
Guiding Principle: Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss writing. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.ii
There are four key areas found in the Writing section for grades 6-12: Writing Genres, the Writing Process, the Research Process, and Conventions of Standard English. By demonstrating the skills listed in each section, students should be able to meet the Learning Outcome for Writing.
Write routinely over a variety of time frames for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences; apply reading standards to support analysis, reflection, and research by drawing evidence from literature and nonfiction texts.
Handwriting 7.W.2 Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.
Writing Genres: Argumentative, Informative, and Narrative
Write arguments in a variety of forms that –
● Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and use appropriate organizational structures.
● Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
● Establish and maintain a consistent style and tone appropriate to purpose and audience.
● Use effective transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
● Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
Write informative compositions in a variety of forms that –
● Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition and classification; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
● Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples from various sources and texts.
● Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
● Choose language and content-specific vocabulary that express ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.
● Establish and maintain a style appropriate to purpose and audience.
● Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
Write narrative compositions in a variety of forms that –
● Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters.
● Organize an event sequence (e.g., conflict, climax, resolution) that unfolds naturally and logically, using a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
● Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
● Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
● Provide an ending that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
The Writing Process
Apply the writing process to –
● Plan and develop; draft; revise using appropriate reference materials; rewrite; try a new approach; and edit to produce and strengthen writing that is clear and coherent, with some guidance and support from peers and adults.
● Use technology to interact and collaborate with others to generate, produce, and publish writing and link to sources.
The Research Process: Finding, Assessing, Synthesizing, and Reporting Information
Conduct short research assignments and tasks to build knowledge about the research process and the topic under study.
● Formulate a research question.
● Gather relevant information from multiple sources, using search terms effectively, and annotate sources.
● Assess the credibility and accuracy of each source.
● Quote or paraphrase the information and conclusions of others.
● Avoid plagiarism and follow a standard format for citation.
● Present information, choosing from a variety of formats.
Conventions of Standard English: Grammar and Usage / Capitalization, Punctuation, and Spelling
Demonstrate command of English grammar and usage, focusing on: 7.W.6.1a Pronouns – Students are expected to build upon and continue applying conventions learned previously.
Recognizing and correcting problems with subject/verb agreement.
7.W.6.1c Adjectives and Adverbs – Students are expected to build upon and continue applying conventions learned previously.
Phrases and Clauses –
Recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
Writing simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences; recognizing and correcting sentence fragments and run-ons; varying sentence patterns for meaning, reader interest, and style.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling focusing on: 7.W.6.2a Capitalization – Students are expected to build upon and continue applying conventions learned previously.
Using commas with subordinate clauses.
7.W.6.2c Spelling – Students are expected to build upon and continue applying conventions learned previously.
SPEAKING AND LISTENING
Guiding Principle: Students listen actively and communicate effectively for a variety of purposes, including for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information and ideas. Students adjust their use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects.iii
SPEAKING AND LISTENING
There are three key areas found in the Speaking and Listening section for grades 6-12: Discussion and Collaboration, Comprehension, and Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas. By demonstrating the skills listed in each section, students should be able to meet the Learning Outcome for Speaking and Listening.
Listen actively and adjust the use of spoken language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
Discussion and Collaboration
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) on grade-appropriate topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing personal ideas clearly.
Investigate and reflect on ideas under discussion by identifying specific evidence from materials under study and other resources.
Follow rules for considerate discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and consider it in relation to one's own views.
Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
Create engaging presentations that include multimedia components and visual displays to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
7.SL.4.3 Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.
Guiding Principle: Students develop critical thinking about the messages received and created by media. Students recognize that media are a part of culture and function as agents of socialization and develop understanding that people use individual skills, beliefs, and experiences to construct their own meanings from media messages. Students develop media literacy skills in order to become more informed, reflective, and engaged participants in society.iv
By demonstrating the skills listed in Media Literacy, students should be able to meet the Learning Outcome for Media Literacy.
Critically analyze information found in electronic, print, and mass media used to inform, persuade, entertain, and transmit culture.
Interpret the various ways in which events are presented and information is communicated by visual image-makers to influence the public.
Analyze the ways that the media use words and images to attract the public's attention.
Adapted from Standards for the English Language. National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association, 1996. Available at http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Books/Sample/StandardsDoc.pdf.
Adapted from Standards for the English Language. National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association, 1996. Available at http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Books/Sample/StandardsDoc.pdf